Before travelling it is useful to consult a doctor. There are countries where information on vaccination is considered as important as the passport when crossing the border and where vaccinations are mandatory. Be sure to consult in advance about possible communicable diseases and vaccinations, if travelling to tropical destinations: countries of the Pacific region, Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Travel vaccination depends on the duration and destination of the travel:
Business and conference travel for a couple of days to capitals/ larger cities, where conditions are relatively safe, do not require any specific vaccinations.
Tourism travels for a week or more, where rural regions with bad hygiene conditions are visited, require vaccinations against more frequently occurring diseases.
Travels of several months or visiting relatives require vaccinations.
If you stay in a foreign country for more than half a year or if you visit the at-risk regions repeatedly, you must get vaccinated.
During traveling it is possible to become infected by many diseases. Infections routes are different: from person to person, food, water, insects and animals, etc. The duration of stay at the destination also affects the infection.
The most common infectious diseases during traveling are diphtheria, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, typhoid fever, cholera, yellow fever, whooping cough, measles, rabies, Meningococcal infection, mumps, polio, rubella, tick-borne encephalitis, rotaviral enteritis, tetanus, tuberculosis. Insect-borne disease examples are malaria, Dengue fever, Chikungunya. For more information on these diseases visit http://reisivaktsiinid.ee/haiguskirjeldused
At the same time you can vaccinate against up to seven diseases. Antibodies are formed in the body for 10-14 days, so the minimal gap between vaccination and departing for travel is 2 weeks, preferably three-four weeks. Many vaccinations, however, should be done several months before the trip. Therefore, it is recommended that travellers to regions of risk contact their family doctors at least a few months before the trip for a general health check and vaccination.
Travel vaccines that are not on the vaccination schedule are subject to a fee. The travel vaccine price list.
For more detailed information, ask your family doctor and nurse or a specialist or a midwife.
Vaccination recommendations for all countries can be found here.
More info http://reisivaktsiinid.ee/
For more information, see:
Health Board’s website on travel and health
Ministry of Foreign Affairs travel and health